The course has nine units in level 1 and six units (plus a starter unit) in level 2.
- Contextualised presentation of vocabulary and activation of passive knowledge.
- Illustrated examples of grammar, graded practice activities and Now Say it section.
- Listening and speaking activities prepare your students for examination success.
- Three reading text types: general content, cross-curricular content, society & culture content.
- Writing Plan: analysis, preparation, resources, checklist and writing reference.
Every unit includes a two-page Language Reference section. This section differs from the reference materials in the appendices of the Student’s Book in that it provides an at-a-glance format for the rapid resolution of queries, while the appendices offer a more discursive explanation of key issues.
An extensive reference section also appears at the end of each book. This section includes:
- Progress checks for self-evaluation.
- Exam practice.
- Grammar reference.
- Writing reference.
- Pronunciation reference.
- Lists of irregular and phrasal verbs.
Simple Race Conditions
The Calculator Race Time predictions assume similar race conditions as the race performance entered into the Calculator. In other words, the surface (road, track, cross country, trail, etc.), terrain (flat, hilly, rolling, etc.) and environmental conditions (cool, dry, hot, humid, etc.) are assumed to be the same for the predictions to be most accurate. The predictions will be less accurate if you, for example, use a flat, fast, cool road marathon performance to predict a hilly, trail 50K in hot conditions or use a 1600m track time to predict your 5K cross country times.
The Calculator Race Times indicate what you could run for various distances if you are properly trained for that distance. In other words, a runner who is optimally trained for a 5K would have to perform proper marathon training in order to expect to run the predicted marathon time. And, the farther apart the distances, the less accurate the Race Times may be. That is to say that a half-marathon performance is a better predictor of your marathon time than is a mile performance.
Sprints and Ultras
At the edges of the Race Time spectrum (short sprints of 100m-400m and ultra marathons of 50K-100 miles), genetics play as much of a role as does training so runners who are more speed-oriented will find the longer races predictions harder to meet and the same goes for endurance-oriented athletes. They will find the shorter race times harder to meet.
Young runners (high school runners) will often find that they under perform as the distance increases (i.e., 400m to 800m to 1600m to 3200m). This is usually due to a lack of aerobic training relative to inherent speed. As they build their aerobic fitness, they will find that their longer distances predictions are more attainable.
Ultra runners must adjust their performance expectations based on the terrain of the race, their experience level and appropriate training. Plus, there are many other factors that affect ultra marathon performances like equipment issues, nutritional issues and environmental conditions. All of these factors must be taken into account when comparing ultra marathon predicted race times.
Every Runner Is Unique
The McMillan Running Calculator is based on what we know from exercise science and real world running. But, every runner is unique so over time, you will learn how to best interpret and modify the Race Times and Optimal Training Paces to fit your particular strengths and weaknesses as well as your goals.