Dna Rna Protein Synthesis Homework #3 Answers To Logo

Unformatted text preview: Assessment for biology: ‐ 2 sides of a sheet of paper ‐ 6/10 difficulty What we need to know: ● 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 of objective set 5 ● table with components of DNA & RNA ● when given a sequence of nucleic acids, be able to “fill in” other half for either replication or mRNA transcription ● protein synthesis diagram (give steps) ‐ 30 pts? ● distinguish among vocab (exact definition not necessary) ‐ 35 pts? Central Dogma of molecular bio DNA controls the production of RNA, RNA controls production of proteins DNA => RNA => Proteins How does this change happen? ^^ Vocabulary that you need to know: Replication: Picture two parallel helixes; but their structure is in an anti‐parallel fashion Helicase comes in, breaks hydrogen bonds, then separates helixes Since a particular nucleotide can only link with one other, it knows what to link with. In transcription, antisense strand gets out of way, sense strand attracts RNA nucleotides instead of DNA nucleotides (Uracil) Transcription turns DNA into RNA by linking with RNA nucleotides. DNA acts as a template to form an mRNA transcript. mRNA detaches from the new combination, then detaches from DNA and leaves nucleus, then the DNA recombines. This means that DNA will stay the way it is, while new RNA is produced. Protein synthesis Transcription Translation Codons Anticodons Promoter‐ Starting point for helicase breakage Terminator‐ Ending point http://www.geneticsrus.org/Genes/reading.gif https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpb5s2F1pyM RNA polymerase RNA transcript You will have visual cues (1‐6) To tell how protein synthesis operates. ^^ ​ How do you end up with proteins originating from DNA/RNA synthesis. RNA polymerase causes RNA synthesis to happen. DNA polymerase allows DNA to recombine with new DNA nucleotides during replication. DNA is like an original blue print, RNA is like a blue print copy given to field workers (on bulldozers). This happens in the form of mRNA. Transcription​ is using the common language of nucleic acids. Translation​ is using the uncommon language of nucleic acids and amino acids. Transfer RNA‐ go and pick up amino acids. 1. Transcription: DNA acts as a template to form an mRNA transcript. 2. mRNA leaves the nucleus via nuclear pore (large protein complex that span the two folder layers of the nuclear envelope). 3. tRNA picks up only specific amino acids. VERY IMPORTANT that a specific tRNA can pick up only one type of AA. Anticodons determine which amino acids. 4. tRNA links with mRNA (anticodons => codons) positioning amino acid in protein chain. ​ (DELIVERY/POSITIONING) Amino acids, “riding” on tRNA, link with each other through dehydration synthesis. 5. Ribosome acts like a zipper/stapler attaching amino acids to protein chain (chains them together). The amino acids are on the evil snowmen. 6. tRNA leaves to pick up other amino acids (acts as a sort of taxi). There are 64 possible codons (4 nucleic acids ^3 in a codon) # of codons that attach to the tRNA can be more than one Promoter​ : A portion of DNA that is a starting point for transcribing DNA => mRNA. Terminator: ​ The ending point of mRNA transcription. PAGE 1: Starts with table that Roche shared with the sugar/phosphate/base. You can abbreviate bases after you use the actual name of them (i.e. adenine ‐> A) Be able to transcribe DNA => DNA/RNA (ACGTU) Purine is larger than pyrimidine. Translation: involves the steps in which we go from the sequence of nucleic acid to the sequence of amino acids. Transcription: happens in the nucleus Translation: in the cytoplasm, steps 3‐5 (and possibly/sort of 2+6) Amino acids are located in the cytoplasm ...
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DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis__BRIANNA MATEO_______Homework #3: RNA and TranscriptionDate ___________________Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs:1.Replication and transcription:Replication is the process of making a complete copy of a DNA molecule. Transcription is the process of forming a strand of RNA from a DNA template.2.Messenger RNA and transfer RNA:Messenger RNA (mRNA) travels from the nucleus to the ribosomes with the instructions for building proteins. Transfer RNA (tRNA) reads the mRNA message, gathers the correct amino acids, and transports these amino acids to the ribosome.3.Introns and exons:Introns are sequences of nitrogen bases that are not involved in the making of a protein. Exons are sequences ofnitrogen bases that are involved in the making of a protein. The introns will be cut out and the remaining exons will be spliced together.Fill in the Blanks:_ ribonucleic acid 1. What does “RNA” stand for?Ribose 2. What type of sugar is found in RNA?____ thymine_3. Which nitrogen base will not be found in RNA?__ uracil 4. Which nitrogen base is found in RNA, but not in DNA?_____nucleus_5. In what part of the cell does transcription occur?___ transcription __6. The process of forming a strand of RNA from a strand of DNA.

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